Blog

   The Mouzon Design Blog is the back-story to our work. Primarily, it's the story of why we do what we do. If there's something about architecture or place-making you'd like for us to blog about, please email us to let us know. 

2017


Place & Street Names

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cottage court bathed in warm Caribbean sunlight at Mahogany Bay Village on Ambergris Caye in Belize is backed by a Family Cottage across the canal

   There is an authenticity crisis in place-naming and street-naming today. It stems in part from the inherent conflict of suburban development, where for more than seventy years, developers have been enticing people out of the city to the dream of a wide-open green countryside. And so they pick names like Fox Run, Quail Ridge, Meadow Green, etc. But the reality is that Fox Run is the place where foxes will never run again, and the green meadow has long been lost to asphalt and tract housing.

   Another culprit is focus group naming, which is usually calibrated to create super-sweet place names that sound like nothing so much as marketing fluff. Today, places fighting for the sweetest names sound fake. Here are some ideas for place names and street names that I hope you find helpful:

Place Names

   The best choice for a place (neighborhood or town) name is some characteristic of the place that will remain once the place is developed. Seaside is a classic general place name, because that’s where the town is built: by the sea side. Mahogany Bay Village (pictured above) is a more specific name for a village built on a bay using a lot of local mahogany wood. If you want the name to sound timeless, choose something that isn’t so sweet. You’re unlikely to be courageous enough to name a place something like Foggy Bottom or Rocky Ridge, but our ancestors had no problem naming places for real characteristics they embodied.

Street Names

   Here are several categories of street names that have been used through the years. I went through a number of cities and towns and catalogued all of the street names in their historic districts and then sorted them into the following types. These categories seem timeless because they have been used for so long and therefore don't sound like "contemporary marketing fluff."

Numbers

   Numbers are possibly the most common method ever used. This works best in areas that are fairly well-gridded.

1st

2nd

3rd, etc...

Letters

   This is a similar principle, but much less common. Washington DC is probably the most notable example.

A

B

C, etc.


Presidents

   “Founding fathers” are more common than later presidents. Most recent presidents would not be a good choice because you would alienate the half of the market who did not vote for them.

Washington

Adams

Jefferson

Madison

Monroe

Jackson

Van Buren

Harrison

Tyler

Polk

Taylor

Fillmore

Pierce

Buchanan

Lincoln

Johnson

Grant (popular in the North, very uncommon in the South due to Civil War history)

Hayes

Garfield

Arthur

Cleveland

Harrison

McKinley

Roosevelt

Taft

Wilson

Harding

Coolidge

Hoover (very uncommon everywhere because of Depression history; very few after this date have been used)

US States

   The most populous and oldest states are most common; some derivatives drop North or South.

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Carolina

Colorado

Connecticut

Dakota

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Jersey

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

York

Geographic Features

   These should be features that occur at least somewhere if not entirely along the thoroughfare.

Bay

Bayou

Big Cove

Boundary

Canal

Center

Central

Cliff

Division

Fairway

Forest

Front

Grove

Hill

Hillsedge

Lakeside

Levee

Line

Railroad

Rampart

River

Riverside

Valley

Wall

Water

Wharfside

Geographic Directions

North

South

East

West

Destinations On/Of Thoroughfare

Airport

Bank

Barracks

Battery

Bridge

Capitol

Church

City Park

College

Commerce

Country Club

Court

Depot

Exchange

Fairground

Ferry

Fountain

Inn

Market

Meeting

Mill

Nursery

Park

Port

Prospect

Society

Spring

University

Description of Thoroughfare Itself

Broad

Broadway

Circle

Circlet

Crescent

Grand

Main

Short

Little

Great

High

Major Specific Destination on Thoroughfare

   Ursulines (convent in French Quarter), etc.

Trees

   This is possibly the most enduring name type, and has continued through the postwar era to today. Some cities use them in alphabetical order, which helps with orientation, like using street numbers or letters.

Ash

Blackberry

Boxwood

Cedar

Cherry

Chestnut

Cypress

Dogwood

Elm

Fig

Gum

Hickory

Holly

Hollywood

   If you’re naming alphabetically, there aren’t any good names that begin with I, which is why cities often skip to J.

Juniper

   K has the same problem as I, and is often skipped as well.

Laurel

Live Oak

Locust

Magnolia

Maple

Mulberry

Myrtle

Nectarine

Nutmeg

Oak

Orange

Palmetto

Peach

Peachtree

Pecan

Persimmon

Pine

Plum

   Q is skipped as well.

Redbud

Spruce

Sycamore

Teak

   Most places don’t name more than 20 streets for trees, so U, V, X, Y, and Z which have few good tree species aren’t usually needed. There are, however, a couple good W trees that are often used as street names:

Walnut

Willow

Compound Tree Names

   These are dangerous because they can sound contrived, unless they actually describe a preserved feature.

Walnut Grove

Maple Hill

Forest Glen

Pine Hollow

Willow Shore

Oakmont

Chestnut Hill

Nearby Towns

   These should occur on thoroughfares that connect to towns in the middle distance of 5 to 50 miles or so.

Regional Favorite Towns or Places

Augusta

Charleston

Savannah

Lansing

Macon

Natchez

Forsyth

Charlotte

Biltmore

Monticello, etc.

Regional Locations

Arcadia

Cumberland

Delta

Appalachia

Appalachian

People, Cities or Places in Another Country Invoked by Neighborhood

   These examples are all from New Orleans' French Quarter:

Bourbon

Burgundy

Chartres

Conti

Dauphin(e) (used here and many other places)

Dumaine

Iberville

Orleans

Pere Antione

Toulouse

   These examples are from Columbus, Ohio's German Village:

Beck

Berger

Hoster

Jaeger

Klein

Kossuth

Lathrop

Rader

Reinhard

Frankfort

   These examples are from St. George's Bermuda:

Duke of Clarence

Duke of Kent

Duke of York

Wellington

Military Heroes

Decatur

Eisenhower

Forrest (South only)

Grant (more common in North)

Greene

Jackson

Lafayette

Lee (more common in South)

Marion

Sherman (North only)

Saints

St. Ann

St. Louis

St. Peter

St. Philip

St. Charles

St. Denis

St. Louis

St. James

St. Paul

Santa Rosa

Santa Lucia

Planners & Related Professionals

   Unlike most thorougfare names, New Urbanist Town Founders often use names of living professionals, often to the chagrin of those professionals. Andrés Duany is well-known for discouraging Duany Street, for example.

Burnham

Calthorpe

Carter

Davis

Duany

Eliot

Geddes

Gindroz

Haussmann

Howard

Jacobs

Krier

L'Enfant

Lewis

Morris

Moule

Nolen

Olmsted

Plater-Zyberk

Polyzoides

Porphyrios

Pullman

Riis

Robertson

Sharpe

Solomon

Stern

Vaux

National Political Leaders

   Presidents are not the only leaders whose names are used for thoroughfares. The following are some of the more common names:

Bryan

Calhoun

Claiborne

Clay

Franklin

Hamilton

Hancock

Houston

Marshall

Paine

Founding Leaders (Regional or Local)

Bienville

Braxton

Governor Nicholls

Gwinnett

Habersham

Heyward

Lynch

Oglethorpe

Penn

Rutledge

Wythe

Royalty

   These names are rarely used in the US, but are common throughout the British Commonwealth.

King

Queen

Prince

Princess

Royal

Government

Assembly

Confederate

Congress

Federal

Government

National

Senate

State

Union

Merchants, Craftsmen or Other Inhabitants

   The trade name is often followed by a unique thoroughfare description.

Factor's Row

Music Alley

Old Maids' Lane

Pirates' Alley

Printer's Alley

Printer's Row

Silk Alley

Tailor's Alley

Crops

Olive

Vine

Wheat, etc.

Universities

   Ivy League university names are by far the most common.

Cornell

Harvard

Princeton

Stanford

Vanderbilt

Yale

Qualities

Concord

Confidence

Fair

Liberty

Memorial

Tenacity

   And here are some really quirky ones from Prospect New Town in Longmont, Colorado. Some of these could only have been named in our time, but are consistent with the character of earlier names. Thanks to Nathan Norris for suggesting adding these to this post.

100 Year Party

Half Measures

Incorrigible

Neon Forest

Tempted Ways

Other

   These are recurring names in multiple cities for which I have not discovered their origin. It’s possible they may have been named for different locally- or regionally-significant people who had the same last name.

Alexander

Bull

Gates

George (Washington? King?)

Gordon

Lauderdale

Livingston

Lowe

Morgan

Peabody

Peters (Saint?)

Randolph

Roper

Steele

Walker

White

Williams


   I hope you find this list useful. If you think of other types, please leave 


   ~Steve Mouzon


2016


The New Deal - Will Work for Images?

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   Four and a half years ago, I posted what’s below, but I hadn’t figured out all the moving parts. Since then, I’ve put the missing pieces together. Here’s the bottom line: do you have any interest in processing and tagging images in exchange for the use of those images? If so, read on…

La-Bandita-11OCT09-9992

   I have a predicament, but you may be able to help me solve it. For over 7 years, I've been shooting RAW images, and for almost that long, I've been tagging them with metadata such as keywords to make it much easier for anyone (including me) to find what they're looking for.

Gualtieri-11OCT11-1174

   In that length of time, I've shot tens of thousands of images per year, but as you can see on my Zenfolio site, I've only processed and tagged a few thousand of them.

Florence-11OCT19-4496

   Here's why: I've found that if I spend 8 hours on a photo shoot, I'll likely spend 10-12 hours converting them from RAW to jpg and tagging them with metadata.

Florence-11OCT19-4665

   It's hard enough to get away and shoot for a few days, but when I return home, things are usually piled up to the point that it's completely impossible to find several more days to process the images.

Castiglioncello-del-Trinoro-11OCT09-9665

   I've come to the realization recently that at this rate, I’m likely to get to the end of my career with over a million excellent images that are no good to me or anyone else because they've never been processed. Depressing, eh?

Florence-11OCT19-4440

   So here's what I'm proposing: I've spent the money and the time to go across the country and abroad to collect these images, and I sort out the good ones from the not-so-good. If you'll spend the time to process some of the good ones, you will have spent a little more time than me, but possibly no money (if you have the software already.) So I shoot and sort, you tag & process, and we both get the images. Cool, eh?

Florence-11OCT19-4456

   You can do anything you want with the images except sell or give them to anyone else. Use them in books, reports, graphics, research, whatever. Here's the fine print… it's short, and written in plain English, so be sure to read it.

Gualtieri-11OCT11-1191

   The sample images in this post are some of my recent work, so these are the sorts of images you're likely to find in the ones you process: great places and the architecture within them, populated with interesting people. Please note that these are only shots from a few towns on a single trip to Italy in 2011, not a "best-of-the-best."

La-Bandita-11OCT09-0062

   If you're interested, please let me know. I’ve added a list of shoots to the end of this post, so you can see what you have to choose from. I'll also send you a workflow for image processing and metadata tagging so you'll know exactly what to do. And if you’re primarily a visual person, you can just do the image processing; if you’re a bigger fan of words, you can do just the metadata. The only trick is that if you only do one but want the complete tagged and processed images, you’ll need to wait for someone else to do the other half.

Gualtieri-11OCT11-1239

   What's the software? You'll need Photo Mechanic to tag the images. It's a relatively inexpensive app that's used by newspapers all across the country. I researched all the available apps when I first got started tagging, and it was by far the cleanest and fastest.

Pienza-11OCT07-9102

   You'll also need PhotoShop CS5 or later to convert from RAW. Why CS5? Because Adobe has significantly improved the RAW conversion capabilities since earlier versions, so you can't do some of the things I'll be asking you to without it.

Pienza-11OCT07-8983

   You can take as much or as little work as you like. Because I'm crowd-sourcing this work, I'm confident there will eventually be enough volunteers to get it all done. Thanks for considering this!

La-Bandita-11OCT09-0142


   Scroll down for the list of shoots. Click on a shoot, and it will open an email to me. The image count is for all images… the 3-5 stars will need the most attention; you don’t need to do much with the 1-2 stars. Please let me know in the email if you have any questions… and thanks so much!

   ~Steve Mouzon


Let’s start with Normandy:


Beny-Sur-Mer - 47 images - processtagboth

   Canadian War Cemetery (near Beny-Sur-Mer) - 42 images - processtagboth

Beuvron-en-Auge (classic Normandy town) - 189 images - processtagboth

Caen

   Abbaye aux Dames & Hotel Dieu - 35 images - processtagboth

   Caen buildings - 49 images - processtagboth

   Caen market - 19 images - processtagboth

   Caen streets - 29 images - processtagboth

   Eglise Saint Etienne - Place Louis Guillouard - 79 images - processtagboth

   Eglise Saint-Pierre - Chateau de Caen - 68 images - processtagboth

   Hippodrome de la Prairie - 54 images - processtagboth

   Place Saint-Sauveur - 143 images - processtagboth

   Rue du Vaugueux - 48 images - processtagboth

   Rue Ecuyere & Saint-Pierre - 54 images - processtagboth

   Rue Froide - 26 images - processtagboth

Courtils - 23 images - processtagboth

Honfleur (I call it “Normandy’s Portofino”) - 369 images - processtagboth

Mont Saint Michel (need I say more?) - 418 images - processtagboth


I also have shoots from the following places that I’d really like to do, but don’t have them quite ready for you yet. Please click on ones you’re interersted in and let me know, and I’ll put them at the top of the list.


Bahamas: Harbour Island (Dunmore Town), Hope Town

Belize: San Pedro

Canada: Calgary, Montreal, Ottawa, Wakefield

Cuba: Havana

France: Dijon, Reims

Guatemala: Antigua Guatemala, Cayala (Leon Krier’s new town near Guatemala City)

Greece: Athens (Acropolis only from a distance, as workers were on strike)

Italy: Alberobello (the best town for trulli - the stone houses with conical roofs), Bologna, Castiglioncello del Trinoro, Florence, La Bandita, Parma, Pienza, Rome (many shoots to choose from; I’ll organize by category), Sabbionetta, Siena, Venice

Japan: Tokyo

Luxembourg

Philippines: Laiya, Lucena, Manila, SariayaTagaytay

South Africa: Cape Town

Spain: Toledo

UK: London (like Rome, I’ll organize by category)


USA

   Alabama: Eufaula, Florence, Gorham’s Bluff, Huntsville (several shoots, including Providence), Montgomery (Hampstead), Mount Laurel (night shots), Pike Road (The Waters), Sheffield, Tuscaloosa (several shoots)

   Arizona: Arcosanti, Taliesin West

   California: Hollywood, Los Angeles (several shoots), San Diego (includes Balboa Park), San Francisco

   Colorado: Buena Vista (South Main), Denver, Golden, Longmont (Prospect)

   Connecticut: Essex, Guilford, Southport, Stonington

   Delaware: New Castle, Odessa

   Florida: Alys Beach, Atlantic Beach, Bradenton Beach, Celebration, Defuniak Springs, Disney World, Draper Lake, Fernandina Beach, Key West (several shoots), Miami Beach (many shoots to choose from), Orlando, Palm Beach, Rosemary Beach, Rotonda West, Sarasota, Seaside, St. Augustine, St. Petersburg, Windsor, Winter Park (several shoots)

   Georgia: Atlanta (several shoots), Savannah, Serenbe

   Hawaii: Holualoa, Honolulu, Kainaliu, KealakekuaWaikiki

   Illinois: Chicago (several shoots)

   Indiana: Muncie

   Kentucky: Covington, Prospect

   Louisiana: Lafayette, New Orleans (a hundred gigs of shoots to choose from)

   Maine: Lewiston, Portland

   Maryland: Baltimore (several shoots), Centreville, Chesapeake City, Chestertown, Gibson Island, Kentlands, Port Deposit, Rolph’s Wharf, St. Michaels, Towson

   Massachusetts: Boston (several shoots), Cambridge (Harvard), North Adams

   Michigan: Detroit

   Mississippi: Gulfport (Florence Gardens), Madison (Lost Rabbit, Township at Colony Park), Ocean Springs (Cottage Square), Oxford

   Missouri: St. Louis

   Nevada: Las Vegas

   New Jersey: Cape May, Haddonfield, Pitman, Princeton

   New Mexico: Albuquerque

   New York: Buffalo, New York City (many shoots, including Forest Hills Gardens, High Line, and the last day of Occupy Wall Street), Niagara Falls

   North Carolina: Wilmington

   Ohio: Cleveland (West Side Market), Columbus (German Village & Short North), Oberlin, Ohio City, Put-In-Bay, Wellington

   Oklahoma: Carlton Landing

   Oregon: Portland (several shoots)

   Pennsylvania: Bensalem (Andalusia), Lawrenceville, Philadelphia

   South Carolina: Beaufort (several shoots), Charleston (several shoots), Habersham (several shoots), I’On

   Tennessee: Chattanooga, Nashville

   Texas: Austin, Dallas (includes Deep Ellum & Highland Park), Galveston (Beachtown), Gruene, San Antonio (several shoots, including Alamo, mission trail, and Riverwalk), San Marcos

   Utah: Salt Lake City

   Virginia: Alexandria, Charlottesville (includes Monticello without tourists - they let me in early), Norfolk (East Beach), Richmond (several shoots), Williamsburg

   Washington: Seattle, Spokane

   Washington DC (many shoots)

   Wisconsin: Madison, Milwaukee


2015


The Garden Walls of Providence

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Charleston-08NOV17-3088

   I promised Providence stories after the DPZ-designed community won the NAHB’s National Community of the Year… let’s start off with something Providence does well that breaks rules. Frontage fences are typically limited to a height of 40 inches or less in traditional neighborhoods across the US, but I noticed on a trip to Charleston several years ago that houses there often have brick garden walls up to eight feet tall or sometimes more that come right up to the sidewalk.

Charleston-12MAY18-7427

Charleston garden wall

   When I see something that breaks rules but looks good, I have to ask myself “why is that OK?” What I realized was that if there had been wood stockade fences that tall right on the sidewalk, they would have been oppressive. But because they were well-detailed brick or stucco garden walls, they compensated for their height by being beautiful.

   There was another benefit it took me longer to figure out: because a good garden wall has piers every few feet, it modulates the view every 2-3 steps as you walk along, making the walk more interesting than a continuous smooth wall. An 8’ wall right beside the sidewalk also creates as much enclosure as a 30’ tall building standing 25’ away. So a good garden wall enhances Walk Appeal in at least these two ways, making the street a more interesting place to walk.

Darden-1-Braxton-24-1-VP-HSV-AL

Providence garden wall

   When I returned from Charleston, I decided to try out the lessons I’d learned there at Providence, where I’ve served as Town Architect almost since the beginning. Town Founders David and Todd Slyman have always had a keen interest in getting the fences right from the very beginning, so I was confident they would listen. I was right. We started with Todd’s house, which was just being designed at the time. We decided to allow garden walls only on side streets to begin with, in case we didn’t get it right. A side street is one where the sides of the buildings meet the street; a front street is one where the fronts of the buildings meet the streets.

   It was a great success. We now have several garden walls on side streets at Providence, and the lessons learned there are informing the next neighborhood on the hilltop across the stream. There, because a lot of the houses are built on the brow of the hill overlooking the stream below, it is necessary to have motor court entries on those streets. And because we’ve gotten gotten good at garden walls in the valley, we’ve done a pretty good job on the hilltop from the very beginning.


   ~Steve Mouzon


Village of Providence Wins National Community of the Year Award From National Association of Homebuilders

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US flag waves in summer breeze from white-columned front porch overlooking fence-lined sidewalk in the Village of Providence, Huntsville, Alabama

   The National Association of Homebuilders (NAHB) announced this afternoon that the Village of Providence in Huntsville, Alabama has been named the Community of the Year in the 2014 Best in American Living Awards (BALA). The Village of Providence has been developed since the beginning by a local family business headed by Town Founder David Slyman. Providence was planned by Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company in 2002, with Andrés Duany as project principal and directed briefly by Jeff Speck until his departure for private practice, and then by Galina Tachieva and Xavier Iglesias ever since.

   Wanda and I have had the honor of being involved with Providence from the beginning, and there are so many great stories to tell, and so many great lessons that have been learned that there’s no way to fit it all in a single post, so I’ll follow up in coming weeks.

Village of Providence town center rises 3-5 stories above Providence Main Street, higher than most buildings in the nearby historic center of Huntsville, Alabama

How many new town centers do you know with

buildings that are 3-5 stories tall?

   It all began with DPZ’s design charrette, which started with a public presentation at Huntsville High School the evening of April 1, 2002. Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (the D and PZ of DPZ) had been two of my heroes ever since the plan of Seaside was first published in the spring of 1981. Upon graduation in 1983, I almost tried to get an interview in Miami, but instead opted to return home to Huntsville where our kids could grow up near their grandparents.

Village of Providence tree-shaded central plaza begins to fill with early lunch patrons, framed by 5-story brick buildings

the town center’s first plaza

   But now, with DPZ coming to Huntsville to design a New Urbanist neighborhood, there was no way I wasn’t going to be a part of it. So I just simply showed up and volunteered a week of my time. And I discovered that even heroes appreciate a helping hand. Years later, I have now heard countless stories of other people getting started in the New Urbanism in exactly the same way.

   Nathan Norris (also living in Huntsville at the time) and I were curating a collection of New Urbanist home designs, which we brought to the charrette. We worked on them, and on whatever else was needed through the week. Saturday afternoon, the pace slowed a bit, and Andrés asked me what else I was working on. I told him I had just founded a group called the New Urban Guild; it was a reconstituted version of Nathan’s original brainchild of the Architect’s Guild. In any case, it was a group of likeminded architects all working within the New Urbanism that we could mobilize to work on a project together.

town center of the Village of Providence occupy three corners of intersection on Providence Main Street, Huntsville, Alabama

Most new town centers are lucky to occupy one corner
of an intersection, but Providence’s occupies three

at this intersection.

   I can still remember… we were walking across the studio floor when I was describing the Guild to Andrés, and he just stopped, mid-stride. Slowly, he turned to face me with a really strange look on his face. I thought I was in trouble or something… until he said “do you have any idea how long I’ve been looking for this?” I didn’t, of course. But then he explained how his choices until then had been to deal with a group of local architects who didn’t necessarily understand the New Urbanism, or even care about it, or bring in a single great architect who did, and have everything look like it was designed by a single hand. Like a project, in other words, not a real town.

   That was the beginning of many years of work as a consultant with DPZ, both individually and with other Guild architects. And that relationship resulted in us moving to Miami almost twelve years ago.

townhouses line street overlooking neighborhood park as stormy skies lie dark beyond

first townhouses at Providence

   But before we left, we set a couple other things in motion. I had been branching out from the practice of architecture for a few years, having written my first book just a couple years prior. While I had great admiration for the better architectural pattern books of the day, having worked with one while designing a few dozen houses at the Ledges of Huntsville Mountain, I lamented the fact that there was not yet a pattern book based on Andrés’ emerging Transect tools, nor one calibrated to the region. For example, pattern books that included bungalows normally used the textbook version that was a national average of sorts, while the bungalows in the deep South were simpler, both in detail and color scheme because the region was still bathed in poverty when bungalows were first built.

all-white Italianate home rises three stories to richly bracketed eaves spreading out against the cloud-strewn skies in the Village of Providence, Huntsville, Alabama

“Spice style” methodology was first

developed for Providence

pattern book.

   So we proposed a Transect-based, regionally-calibrated pattern book for Providence, and David accepted. It was originally a Mouzon Design job, but Nathan and I were in the process of gathering a few other colleagues to form PlaceMakers… but PlaceMakers had no jobs yet, and therefore no cash flow. So Wanda and I volunteered to throw in the Providence pattern book as its first job, and PlaceMakers was off to the races.

   We started one more thing at Providence… I had been working since the mid-1990s as a Town Architect, first for a year at Blount Springs, then at the Ledges. Andrés recommended me to David at the charrette, and except for a brief period right after we moved to Miami, I’ve served continuously ever since.

   I’ll post more later on pattern books, Town Architect best practices, and many of the other lessons learned at Providence, including how the Providence town center turned into such a powerhouse, building a more robust town center than Huntsville’s downtown. But those are stories for another day. Tonight, it’s time to congratulate David and Marsha Slyman, David’s brother Todd, and the entire Providence design, development, and construction team for a job well done, and for a level of commitment to excellence that has never wavered for almost thirteen years now. So very well done, all of you! Congratulations!!


   ~Steve Mouzon


2014


The Myth of Universal Design - and - How to Be Adaptable Instead

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Universal Design advocates say this mirror should work for everyone, but it clearly doesn't work for me, unless I sit down.

This mirror works perfectly fine for someone sitting down, but not for someone standing up… at least not for someone who is moderately tall.


   “Universal Design” quite frankly is a sham, at least inside a building. There’s nothing universal about it. Universal Design is the term used by architects and advocates for the physically challenged to describe their design ideals. But let’s face facts: how a person interacts with their surroundings while sitting down (whether in a wheelchair or elsewhere) is very different from how they interface with those same places standing up. It’s inescapable.

   It seems like every interest group today is over-reaching. The fire marshals are over-stepping into the planners’ territory, and the urban foresters are making claims that defy logic. So the advocates for the physically challenged certainly aren’t alone in their error… but it’s still an error. And that’s a pity, because they occupy the moral high ground on a number of other counts.

soft coastal light falls through the hanging pots and across the white marble countertops of this delicious kitchen

cabinets either side of range could

easily be furniture instead

Tweet: Forget Universal Design. Do adaptable design instead that can change over time for an occupant’s mobility. http://ctt.ec/_2D3f+

Forget Universal Design. Do adaptable design instead, that can change over time for an occupant’s mobility.

   Let’s consider another alternative: rather than attempting to design a space and cloak it in the false claim that it works equally well for people sitting down and standing up, what if that space were designed to be adaptable instead? So that when a person without physical challenges lived there, it could adapt to their mobility, or when someone with physical challenges were there, it could adapt to theirs as well? Or consider my friend Mike Watkins, who was in a wheelchair several months after a car wreck years ago: would it not have been great had he been able to adapt his home for that temporary change in mobility, only to change it back later?

stainless steel pull-outs in base cabinets store far more than standard fixed shelving, so that base cabinets alone can store as much as an entire conventional kitchen

equip all base cabinets with pull-outs, and the base

cabinets alone can store more than base and wall

cabinets in a conventional kitchen

Tweet: Mobile furniture is much more nimble and adaptable than built-in cabinets. http://ctt.ec/RT1Hf+

Mobile furniture is much more nimble and adaptable than built-in cabinets.

   Here’s one way to do it: do movable furniture instead of built-in cabinets whenever possible. That might seem laughable to anyone stepping through the kitchen door, but look at photos of some of the really charming kitchens designed a century ago: most, if not all of the millwork was furniture, not cabinets. And today’s high-design kitchens are more often than not filled with cabinets that are faux furniture. Just make it real instead of faux and the kitchen becomes highly adaptable.

open casement windows on a kitchen wall brighten the workspace dramatically, and provide a gentle breeze to cool the kitchen on a late spring day

reducing or eliminating the need for wall cabinets pays

several dividends beyond accessibility for those seated,

because all that wall space that would have been

cabinets can be windows instead - with or without

shelves like those shown here

Tweet: An adaptable interior is usually a more charming interior, especially when the pieces used have stories to tell. http://ctt.ec/Y6LE7+

An adaptable interior is usually a more charming interior, especially when the pieces used have stories to tell.

   The new kitchens are often made to look like they’re built of furniture because the best designers now realize that lots of people consider them more lovable than their more sterile counterparts built of blatant built-in cabinets. And you can be even greener and do the real thing… adapt existing old furniture that has a history. Help it endure for another generation or two. Real stories embedded in real scrapes and scars is far better than brush-on patina.

   We talked about new uses for furniture in the Closets vs. Armoires post, which showed how it’s possible for one generation’s master bedroom to become another generation’s home office… just by moving the armoires. Adaptability is one of the foundations of sustainability, as the Original Green site points out.

   In any case, “aging in place” is a big concern today, and rightfully so. Why should someone be forced out of their house because their mobility changes? If you don’t mind, please let me know in the poll (and the comments below) if this is something you’ve been thinking about… thanks!


   ~Steve Mouzon


Outdoor Rooms vs. Open Decks

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open deck just off the Couple's Suite of the 2011 Coastal Living Idea House overlooks the alley - but will anyone sit there?

Yes, it’s pretty, but will anyone really sit on this deck on the alley?


classic Hearth Garden nestles around white brick outdoor fireplace at the 2011 Coastal Living Idea House

Hearth Garden

   America has a decades-long flirtation with decks dating all the way back to the 1970s, but open decks have several serious problems. Wanda and I designed the Coastal Living Idea House in 2011, and the landscape designers did a wonderful job of realizing our design intent almost everywhere around the house… except for one place: the private Couple's Garden was traded at the last moment for an open deck overlooking the alley that is unlikely to ever be used. I never heard exactly how that happened, but switching back to “the normal way” is such an easy thing for a developer or builder to do that it’s a cinch to understand how such a thing could take place. But it’s still unfortunate. Here’s why:


Longevity

view across the Hearth Garden to the Dinner Garden at the 2011 Coastal Living Idea House

view from Hearth Garden to Dinner Garden

   Treated pine salesmen will tell you about their 40-year (or longer) warranties, but go out and try to find a deck that has been there since 1974. They don’t exist. Sure, you might find one that’s in the same place as one built in 1974, but it has likely been rebuilt several times since then. Simply put, treated wood doesn’t last very long laying flat under an open sky. Wood porch floors often last for most of a century, but they’re covered, which protects them from much of the sun and almost all of the rain, ice, and snow. If you want a floor outdoors under the open sky, you really should use flooring made of stone or clay. In other words, pavers or tile of some sort.


Privacy

garden rooms snuggle into back corner courtyard of the 2011 Coastal Living Idea House, framed by side porch with striped canvas roll-down awnings

outdoor rooms work best when they

snuggle into a corner of the house

   A proper floor is only part of a well-designed outdoor room. If you’re like most people, you’re more comfortable sitting down outdoors in a place with at least some privacy instead of places where you’re on full display to the public… at least when you’re home. If you’re sitting at a sidewalk cafe with other diners, that’s perfectly fine. But for most of us who don’t like the idea of living in glass houses, home is not a place where we really aspire to be on display. That’s why outdoor rooms need solid walls that are at least shoulder height when we’re sitting down. For most outdoor rooms, we feel much more comfortable if they’re at least as tall as we are when we’re standing.


Room Type

   The amount of privacy needed isn’t the same with all outdoor rooms. Kitchen Gardens can be most public, located where neighbors can walk by and ask “how does your garden grow” or whatever. Views into Dinner Gardens or Breakfast Terraces can be OK as well, as we’re acclimated to eating in public. But the Hearth Garden should be more private, and the Couple's Garden should be the most private of all, because it’s the realm shared by only the two of you.


Comfort

small trees planted along the private garden fence of the 2011 Coastal Living Idea House provide cooling shade and privacy from the neighbors

row of small trees cool the garden and provide privacy

above the top of the garden wall

   Outdoor rooms should be designed to cool you in summertime, but should keep you warm late into an autumn evening. A room open to the breeze can keep you cool on a summer afternoon, but is very difficult to keep warm as the days shorten deep into the fall. But you can also keep cool by other means as well, such as shade from an arbor or tree, or the cooling effect of a fountain beside you. So it’s easier to keep an outdoor room comfortable for months longer if it’s mostly enclosed.

   But maybe that’s just me… what would you prefer? Are you a huge open deck fan, or would you consider a well-designed outdoor room instead? Take this poll, then see what everyone else thought as well… thanks!


   ~Steve Mouzon


2012


Favorite Books for Designers & Builders

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young women reading in Jose Plecnik's National and University Library in Ljubljana, Slovenia

   I've participated in several "most important books" discussions recently. The following are the ones I consider most important to designers and builders. I'm using those terms broadly, focused on but not completely constrained to designing and building physical places, because other acts of designing and building can teach us a lot about physical place-making.

   One note: It may seem very strange, but I've included my own books in this list. Every author, in my opinion, should be passionate about the subject matter in their own books. As a matter of fact, if they don't consider that subject matter important enough to include it in a list of books that are most important to them, they never should have written the book in the first place… that's a "soup pot author"… something we all should hope never to be.

   Another note: What about preservation? I regard preservation as essential to sustainability, and also an integral part of architecture, so books that deal with preservation and reuse are included within whichever of the two categories for which they are most appropriate.

   The final note: There's no shadow of doubt that I've left off some very important books, because I've compiled this list by adding titles simply as they occur to me. So please let me know what you think I've forgotten. Also, there are some new releases such as The Plazas of New Mexico that I'm sure I'll add to the list, but I haven't seen them yet.


Food

Agriculture

farm fields near Cerro Punta, Panama

Agricultural Urbanism: Handbook for Building Sustainable Food Systems in 21st Century Cities

Janine de la Salle & Mark Holland, editors, Green Frigate Books, 2010.

   This book sprang out of the work done at DPZ’s Southlands charrette near Vancouver, where several longstanding barriers to agricultural urbanism were shattered.


Public Produce: The New Urban Agriculture

Darrin Nordahl, Island Press, 2009.

   Excellent new book on agricultural urbanism.


Cuisine

appetizer in curvy white dish

In Defense of Food

Michael Pollan, Penguin, 2009.

   Drawing distinctions between “edible food-like substances” and real food, this book has multiple implications for the places where food is grown.


Omnivore’s Dilemma, The

Michael Pollan, Penguin, 2007.

   Now a classic, this book draws a bright line between the industrial food chain and more sustainable ways of growing what we eat. Essential to fully understanding Nourishable Places.


Placemaking

Original Green

icons of the eight foundations of the Original Green

Green Living: Architecture and Planning

Dr. Barbara Kenda & Steven Parissien, editors, Rizzoli, 2010.

   A collection of essays on sustainability; most take a far broader view than you ordinarily hear. Full disclosure: I wrote one of the essays, but there's a lot of material that's better than mine in the book.


Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World

His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales, Harper, 2010.

   Prince Charles' watershed new book is hard to categorize because it is such a sweeping re-ordering of the way we view ourselves and the environment. I've put it with Original Green titles because the Original Green is also a broad re-ordering of ideas on sustainability, but really, this book is broader than any one category.


Kennedy Green House

Robin Wilson & Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., Greenleaf Book Group Press, 2010.

   This book recounts the reconstruction of Bobby Kennedy, Jr.’s personal home after a devastating flood and mold & mildew infestation. This home exhibits numerous Original Green principles; Bobby wrote the Foreword to the Original Green


the Original Green [Unlocking the Mystery of True Sustainability]

Stephen A. Mouzon, Guild Foundation Press, 2010.

   This book lays out the broad proposition of the Original Green initiative.


New Urbanism Theory

Pensacola Street beach pavilion at Seaside, Florida

Architecture of Community, The

Léon Krier, Island Press, 2009.

   Watershed work by arguably the most important architecture & urbanism thinker of our time, who also happens to be an honorary member of the New Urban Guild.


Death and Life of Great American Cities, The

Jane Jacobs, Vintage, 1992.

   Classic definitive description of the sociology of American cities.


Geography of Nowhere, The

James Howard Kunstler, Simon & Schuster, 1993.

   Both hilarious and incisive, Kunstler skewers the world of sprawl we’ve built recently.


Language of Towns and Cities, The

Dhiru Thadani, Rizzoli, 2010.

   Excellent new work seems at first to be a richly-illustrated lexicon of town-making terms, but it’s actually much more than that. Beautifully illustrated with the author’s endearing pen-and-ink drawings.


New Urbanism, The, Toward an Architecture of Community

Peter Katz, McGraw-Hill, 1994.

   This is the early catalog of the emerging New Urbanism, and covers the pioneering developments. Still a best-seller after more than a decade.


Pattern Language, A

Christopher Alexander, Oxford University Press, 1977.

   This book is considered by many to be “the bible of New Urbanism.” 


Retrofitting Suburbia

Ellen Dunham-Jones & June Williamson, Wiley, 2008.

   This was the first authoritative New Urbanist book on the principles of suburban repair.


Sprawl Repair Manual

Galina Tachieva, Island Press, 2010.

   Essential book containing the latest sprawl repair techniques; a highly useful handbook. Galina sits on the board of the Guild Foundation.


Suburban Nation

Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck, North Point Press, 2001.

   Must-read story of how American suburbia was built, and why that’s a problem. A classic.


Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design With Nature

Douglas Farr, Wiley, 2007.

   Excellent new book by an author who is considered an authority both by New Urbanists and by mainstream sustainability advocates. Doug is also a member of the New Urban Guild.


Timeless Way of Building, The

Christopher Alexander, Oxford University Press, 1979.

   This is the absolutely essential precursor to A Pattern Language.


New Urbanism Practice

honeymoon cottages at Seaside, Florida

American Vitruvius: An Architects’ Handbook of Civic Art

   Werner Hegemann, Elbert Peets, Princeton Architectural Press, 1988.

Recent reprint of the 1922 classic which has been rediscovered by an entire generation of town planners. A valuable catalog of timeless techniques.


Boulevard Book, The

Allan Jacobs, Elizabeth Macdonald, Yodan Rofe, MIT Press, 2002

   Clearly the best resource available on multi-way boulevards that were once the staple of great urban places (and can be again).


Buildings of Main Street, The

Richard Longstreth, American Association for State & Local History Book Series, 2000

   This is the definitive book on Main Street building types. Town centers should not be designed or re-designed without it.


Courtyard Housing in Los Angeles

Stephanos Polyzoides, Roger Sherwood, James Tice, Julius Shulman, Princeton Architectural Press, 1992.

   This is a great analysis of a building type that is flexible enough to become a staple of higher-density urban fabric in many places.


New Civic Art, The

Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Robert Alminana, Rizzoli, 2003.

   Enormous new catalog of the elements of town planning. This book pays homage to the original Civic Art of a century ago, but is entirely new material.


Place Making: Developing Town Centers, Main Streets, and Urban Villages

Charles Bohl, Urban Land Institute, 2002.

   Excellent new summary of many of the new options in mixed-use places.


Pocket Neighborhoods

Ross Chapin, Taunton, 2011.

   Excellent new book on housing clusters & courts, focusing on both the theory and the practice of their creation.


Town Planning in Practice

Raymond Unwin, Princeton Architectural Press, 1994.

   Nearly a century after its initial publication, this book remains one of the best manuals available for the techniques of making great places.


New Urbanism Reference

side of honeymoon cottage at Seaside, Florida

Anatomy of the Village, The

Thomas Sharp, Penguin, 1946.

   Long out of print but still occasionally available, this little book is pound-for-pound the best reference ever printed on the English village structure.


Charter of the New Urbanism

Congress for the New Urbanism, McGraw-Hill, 2000.

   A 194-page expansion on the original 27-point Charter of the New Urbanism, written by the founders. Out of print, but worth it if you can get it.


New Urbanism: Best Practices Guide

Robert Steuteville, Philip Langdon, New Urban News Publications, 2009.

   Quite possibly the most complete reference to the New Urbanism written to date.


Plazas of Southern Europe

Process Architecture #16, 1980.

   This book, if you can find it, is a tremendously valuable resource, containing scale drawings and photos of dozens of well-known plazas. Most are in Italy, but a few other notable ones in the region are included.


Smart Growth Manual, The

Andrés Duany, Jeff Speck, Mike Lydon, McGraw-Hill, 2009.

   Best new book on New Urbanism; clear, concise guide to powerful patterns.


Urban Design Handbook

Urban Design Associates, Norton, 2003.

   A rare and intriguing comprehensive view inside the office practices of one of the most highly-respected planning firms operating today.


Visualizing Density

Julie Campoli, Alex MacLean, Lincoln Institute, 2007.

   One of the greatest impediments to building compact places is the public outcry against density. This book does a wonderful job of turning units per acre into pictures.


Architecture Theory

gateway into the central green of the College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina

Architecture: Choice or Fate

Leon Krier, Andreas Papadakis Publisher, 1998.

   This theoretical work by one of the most important thinkers of our day encompasses both the urban scale and the architectural scale. Intriguing read. 


New Palladians

Alireza Sagharchi & Lucien Steil, ArtMedia, 2010.

   Contemporary survey of architects working in the classical tradition.


Future of the Past, The

Steven Semes, Norton, 2009.

   This book brings rare clarity to issues bedeviling the presentation community today. An essential read whether you're involved in preservation or re-use.


Vision of Britain: A Personal View of Architecture, A

His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales, A. G. Carrick Ltd., 1989.

   A book written fairly early in HRH The Prince of Wales’ career as a healer of places; it includes some of the foundation ideas upon which his current principles of sustainable places are built.


Architecture Reference

classical temple front of historic building in Charleston, South Carolina

A Living Tradition [Architecture of the Bahamas]

Stephen A. Mouzon, Guild Foundation Press, 2007.

   This book rebuilds the architectural pattern book by including principles, not just particulars. “We do this because...”


American Builder's Companion, The

Asher Benjamin, Dover Publications, Inc., 1969.

   This was one of the most important pattern books of early 19th century American architecture.


Architectural Treasures of Early America 16V, The

Lisa C. Mullins, National Historical Society, 1988.

   This essential series of volumes contains most of the White Pine series of monographs from the 1920's and is the largest single collection of reference material I have ever seen on 18th and 19th century eastern and southern American architecture.


Architecture of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, The

Arthur Drexler, MIT Press, 1977.

   This is one of the essential history books on the classicism of the 19th century.


Architecture of the Old South

Mills Lane, Beehive Press, 1993.

   This is the summary volume of Lane's work. He has two books broken down by style and a series broken down by state. If you can afford it, buy the state series or the style series. If not, buy this one. Better yet, buy them all. They're that good.


Classical Architecture

Robert Adam, Harry N. Abrams, 1990.

   This is the other absolutely essential recent work on classical architecture (Chitham's being the first).


Classical Orders of Architecture, The

Robert Chitham, Rizzoli, 1995.

   This absolutely essential book describes both the orders and the origins of classical architecture in as great of detail as any contemporary work.


Country Builders Assistant, The

Asher Benjamin, Applewood Books, 1992.

   This was another of Benjamin's books that shaped the early American republic.


Creating a New Old House

Russell Versaci, Erik Kvalsvik, Taunton, 2007.

   This very popular book successfully told a present-day story of traditional design.


Creating the Not So Big House

Sarah Susanka, Grey Crawford, Taunton, 2002.

   This classic forever changed the way that people view houses, and in several ways paved the way for both the Katrina Cottages initiative, and the broader move to downsize American homes post-Meltdown.


Elements of Classical Architecture, The

Henry H. Reed, W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 2001.

   Great new book on classicism.


Elements of Style, The

Stephen Calloway, Simon & Schuster, 1996.

   This book summarizes the salient characteristics of elements such as doors, windows, stairs, etc. for a range of styles beginning generally in the 18th century. This very detailed work should be considered essential for anyone detailing a building in an existing style.


Field Guide to American Architecture, A

Carole Rifkind, Bonanza Books, 1980.

   Concise, excellent style guide.


Green Restorations: Sustainable Building and Historic Homes

Aaron Lubeck, New Society Publishers, 2010.

   Excellent new book on a subject that sorely needs more attention.


Great Georgian Houses of America

Ralph Reinhold, Dover Publications, Inc., 1970.

   This 2-volume set contains a wealth of wonderfully-composed detailed drawings of Georgian era buildings drawn as part of a public works project during the Great Depression.


History of Architecture, A

Sir Banister Fletcher, Scribners, 1975.

   This is the greatest single history of architecture ever written, with numerous reprints and updates through the years.


Parallel of the Classical Orders of Architecture

Johann Matthaus von Mauch, Acanthus Press, 1998.

   This volume illustrates the range of the five orders in antiquity, dispelling the Renaissance myth that classicism was built on fixed canons.


Rendering in Pen and Ink

Arthur Guptill, Watson Guptill, 1997.

   OK, so this reprint of the 1937 classic isn’t strictly about architecture, but it should be considered essential by anyone who is drawing architecture. Don’t go on a charrette without it.


Shingle Style and the Stick Style, The

Vincent Scully, Jr., Yale University Press, 1971.

   This continues to be the definitive history of a uniquely American style that developed from vernacular roots in the 19th century.


Traditional Construction Patterns

Stephen A. Mouzon, McGraw-Hill, 2004.

   This book lays out the do’s and don’ts of traditional construction, focusing on 108 patterns that are most often screwed up.


Vignola: Five Orders of Architecture, The

Pierre Esquie, William Helburn, 1890.

   Extremely important book if you can find it. There have been reprints in recent years.


House Plan Collections

house on Meeting Street in Charleston, South Carolina

Bienville Collection, The

Stephen A. Mouzon & Wanda W. Mouzon, Mouzon Design, 2007.

   This collection contains designs that are mixed-use like live/works, attached like townhouses, or both. Please note that none of the plans are based on specific buildings on Bienville Street. Rather, Bienville Street is an iconic place for this sort of architecture.


Carolina Inspirations I

Allison Ramsey Architects, 2001.

   First plan book by one of the most prolific architecture firms of the New Urbanism.


Carolina Inspirations II

Allison Ramsey Architects, 2007.

   Second plan book in series.


Carolina Inspirations III

Allison Ramsey Architects, 2001.

   Third plan book in series.


Gulf Coast Emergency House Plans

Stephen A. Mouzon, New Urban Guild Foundation, 2006.

   This is the first book of Katrina Cottage designs, done in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. It contains designs by over a dozen designers, most members of the New Urban Guild.


Katrina Cottages Collection, The

Stephen A. Mouzon & Wanda W. Mouzon, Mouzon Design, 2007.

   This collection contains all types of Katrina Cottages, from Tiny Cottages to Kernel Cottages to Courtyard Cottages and more.


Key West Collection, The

Stephen A. Mouzon & Wanda W. Mouzon, Mouzon Design, 2007.

   This collection contains designs that are smaller and wood frame. Please note that none of the plans are based on specific houses in Key West. Rather, Key West is an iconic place for this sort of architecture.


Mooresville Collection, The

Stephen A. Mouzon & Wanda W. Mouzon, Mouzon Design, 2007.

   This collection contains designs that are larger, several of which are built of brick. Please note that none of the plans are based on specific houses in Mooresville. Rather, Mooresville is an iconic place for this sort of architecture.


Outbuildings: Garages, Guest Houses, and Workshops

Allison Ramsey Architects, 2005.

   This collection contains smaller structures meant to complement a larger main house.


Outbuildings Collection, The

Stephen A. Mouzon & Wanda W. Mouzon, Mouzon Design, 2007.

   This collection contains outbuilding designs, such as garages, carriage houses, pavilions, gazebos, towers, barns, and even an outhouse.


St. Augustine Collection, The

Stephen A. Mouzon & Wanda W. Mouzon, Mouzon Design, 2007.

   This collection contains designs appropriate to regions that are hot and humid and frequented by hurricanes, such as the American Gulf Coast and the Caribbean. Please note that none of the plans are based on specific houses in St. Augustine. Rather, St. Augustine is the most iconic place in the US for this sort of architecture.


Traditional Neighborhood Homes Collection

Moser Design Group, Digital Catalog, 2011.

   This online collection is the only non-book included in this reading list because it is important enough; The Moser Design Group is one of a small handful of the most prolific residential designers of the New Urbanism.


Trends

steam rising from manhole in Charleston, South Carolina

$20 Per Gallon

Christopher Steiner, Grand Central Publishing, 2009.

   Without doubt, the most optimistic take to date on the implications of the inevitable rise in gas prices.


Blink

Malcolm Gladwell, Little, Brown, and Company, 2005.

   Gladwell’s follow-up to The Tipping Point makes the case that our gut reaction may often be far more accurate than over-deliberation. This notion supports several underpinnings of the idea of living traditions.


Free Agent Nation

Daniel H. Pink, Business Plus, 2002.

   Pink lays out a new form of doing business that is overtaking the corporate model.


Hot, Flat, and Crowded

Thomas L. Friedman, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008.

   Friedman’s follow-up to The World is Flat looks at implications of flattening and population growth on sustainability. It was the first best-seller outside the New Urbanism to properly affix blame to sprawl.


Linked

Albert-Lazlo Barabasi, Plume, 2003.

   This book lays out the new reality of vibrant webs of interconnected nodes versus the old hierarchical system; contains many implications for the operation of living traditions.


Long Emergency, The

James Howard Kunstler, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2005.

   Kunstler’s words read like a horror story when written. Now, in retrospect, they read like prophecy as so many of the events have come true since the beginning of the Meltdown, and others seem to be shaping up to do so as well.


Long Tail, The

Chris Anderson, Hyperion, 2008.

   Groundbreaking book laying out the mechanics of the new niche-based markets that toppled the long-running “greatest hits” system, and is radically changing both the publishing and music industries.


Made to Stick

Chip Heath & Dan Heath, Random House, 2007.

   Excellent book about sticky ideas. Several principles underlaid the advances at the 2008 Rose Town Charrette.


New Rules for the New Economy

Kevin Kelly, Penguin, 1998.

   Considered obsolete by some because it was written before the dot-com bubble burst, it nonetheless contains a number of foundation ideas applicable to what we’re building today.


Outliers

Malcolm Gladwell, Little, Brown, 2008.

   Gladwell’s tale of invisible advantages that lead to greatness carries several implications for place-making and sustainability.


Rise of the Creative Class, The

Richard Florida, Basic Books, 2002.

   Florida’s classic work has been trashed a bit recently because places restructuring according to his principles took a beating in the Meltdown. Other places did as well, of course. The core ideas are still sound.


Tipping Point, The

Malcolm Gladwell, Back Bay Books, 2002.

   Classic book that analyzes how trends begin. Contains strong implications for the beginnings of living traditions as well.


Whole New Mind, A

Daniel Pink, Riverhead Books, 2005.

   Pink proposes that the era of left-brained dominance is giving way to an age when the scales tip to the right-brained creatives.


Wisdom of Crowds, The

James Surowiecki, Anchor, 2005.

   Great description of the new collaborative environment that is flourishing outside the walls of “Fort Business.”


World is Flat, The

Thomas L. Friedman, Picador, 2007.

   This important work examines the confluence of a number of trends that have leveled the global playing field between the West and developing nations. Some flattening factors may be disappearing as energy costs increase, but many of the points remain valid.


Science

Environmental Theory

stone wall running through meadow in Dartmoor National Forest, England

   This category includes books on all environmental issues not specifically related to placemaking.

Break Through

Michael Shellenberger & Ted Nordhaus, Houghton Mifflin, 2007.

   Pivotal treatise makes the case that today’s environmentalism can’t save the environment.


New Science

green ferns at Southlands, near Vancouver

   This category includes book on emerging sciences such as randomness and new developments in existing scientific disciplines such as quantum physics.

Biomimicry

Janine M. Benyus, Harper Perennial, 2002.

   This classic spawned a movement that examines natural processes as inspiration for manmade.


Leadership and the New Science

Margaret J. Wheatley, Berrett Koehler Publishers, 2006.

   Written as a business management tool, this book has the added benefit of deciphering the new sciences for the rest of us in a more plain-spoken fashion than could have previously been imagined for quantum physics, etc. Lots of great cross-discipline insights.


Recycling

remains of the town center of Waveland, Mississippi after Hurricane Katrina

Cradle to Cradle

William McDonough, Michael Braungart, North Point Press, 2002.

   Highly influential; advocates radical expansion of our methods of reusing everything.


Web 2.0

global diagram of the blogosphere

Cluetrain Manifesto, The

Christopher Locke, Rick Levine, Doc Searls, David Weinberger, Perseus Books, 2000.

   The 95 theses in this book underlie much of the thinking that has followed in the years since on Web 2.0.


Linchpin

Seth Godin, Portfolio Hardcover, 2010.

   Greatest rant yet on the end of the Factory Era, where you show up, take orders, and do your job.


Marketing to the Social Web

Larry Weber, Wiley, 2007.

   Superficially about marketing, this book deals more with network-building.


New Influencers, The

Paul Gillin, Quill Driver Books, 2007.

   Contains several living tradition implications.


Organization Man, The

William Whyte, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002 (originally published 1957.)

   Classic book describing conditions of the Era of the Company, the demise of which was largely the result of Web 2.0.


Tribes

Seth Godin, Portfolio Hardcover, 2008.

   Godin looks at the antithesis of the place-based urban tribe, which is interest-based tribes that may be geographically dispersed. Living tradition implications.


Twitter Power

Joel Comm, Wiley, 2009.

   This is the best Web 2.0 how-to manual I have seen. Clear & concise style, exhaustive content.


Unleashing the Ideavirus

Seth Godin, Hyperion, 2001.

   Godin’s classic lays out the operations of ideas that spread… essential to the development of a living tradition.


Web 2.0: A Stragegy Guide

Amy Shuen, O’Reilly, 2008.

   This wide-ranging overview of the interactive web covers the bases that existed when it was written.


What No One Ever Tells You About Blogging and Podcasting

Ted Demopoulos, Kaplan Publishing, 2007.

   It’s a few years old, but it’s still got lots of highly useful stuff.


   ~Steve Mouzon


Will Work for Images?

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La-Bandita-11OCT09-9992

   I have a predicament, but you may be able to help me solve it. For the past 3 years, I've been shooting RAW images, and for almost that long, I've been tagging them with metadata such as keywords to make it much easier for anyone (including me) to find what they're looking for.

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   In that length of time, I've shot tens of thousands of images per year, but as you can see on my Zenfolio site, I've only processed and tagged a couple thousand of them.

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   Here's why: I've found that if I spend 8 hours on a photo shoot, I'll likely spend 10-12 hours converting them from RAW to jpg and tagging them with metadata.

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   It's hard enough to get away and shoot for a few days, but when I return home, things are usually piled up to the point that it's completely impossible to find several more days to process the images.

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   I've come to the realization recently that at this rate, I'll get to the end of my career with over a million excellent images that are no good to me or anyone else because they've never been processed. Depressing, eh?

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   So here's what I'm proposing: I've spent the money and the time to go across the country and abroad to collect these images, and I sort out the good ones from the not-so-good. If you'll spend the time to process some of the good ones, you will have spent a little more time than me, but possibly no money (if you have the software already.) So I shoot and sort, you tag & process, and we both get the images. Cool, eh?

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   You can do anything you want with the images except sell or give them to anyone else. Use them in books, reports, graphics, research, whatever. Here's the fine print… it's short, and written in plain English, so be sure to read it.

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   The sample images in this post are some of my recent work, so these are the sorts of images you're likely to find in the ones you process: great places and the architecture within them, populated with interesting people. Please note that these are only shots from a few towns on a single trip to Italy last fall, not a "best-of-the-best."

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   If you're interested, email me to let me know. I'll soon be adding a list of shoots to the end of this post, so you can see what you have to choose from. I'll also send you a RAW conversion procedure and a metadata tagging procedure so you'll know exactly what to do.

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   What's the software? You'll need Photo Mechanic to tag the images. It's a relatively inexpensive app that's used by newspapers all across the country. I researched all the available apps when I first got started tagging, and it was by far the cleanest and fastest.

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   You'll also need PhotoShop CS5 to convert from RAW. Why CS5? Because Adobe has significantly improved the RAW conversion capabilities since earlier versions, so you can't do some of the things I'll be asking you to without it.

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   You can take as much or as little work as you like. Because I'm crowd-sourcing this work, I'm confident there will eventually be enough volunteers to get it all done. Thanks for considering this, and let me know!

La-Bandita-11OCT09-0142


   ~Steve Mouzon


SmartDwelling II

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SmartDwelling II birds-eye view

   Wanda and I designed SmartDwelling II for a competition recently that we never expected to win. The competition was sponsored by two very respectable organizations which will remain nameless, but the program really disturbed us. It purported to call for a home in a hot climate (north Texas) that was both highly affordable and sustainable, but it was classic Gizmo Green, focusing solely on better equipment and materials, and inexplicably banning several passive measures. For example, it required 8' ceilings throughout although tall ceilings are essential in the deep South because they let the heat rise away from you in the afternoon.

SmartDwelling II front view

   I was disgusted with the program and didn't want to participate, but Wanda kept pushing, saying "why don't you use our entry as an opportunity to show what they should have been looking for?" So we decided to do the competition as a critique of the program in order to call attention to this completely backwards but very common approach to sustainability.

SmartDwelling II side view

   The two biggest "game-changers" that affect many other sustainability measures are things we call "Conditioning People First" and "Smaller & Smarter." Here's how Wanda and I accomplished these things in SmartDwelling II:


Conditioning People First

   I blogged a few years ago on the Original Green Blog about an idea I call Living in Season. Briefly, the idea is that if you entice people outside, they get more acclimated to the local environment, needing less heating or cooling when they return indoors. I've proven this personally since moving to South Beach nearly 9 years ago, and there are other benefits, as you'll see if you scroll down in this post.

SmartDwelling II Master Garden & Inner Court

• dog run at left side doubles as driveway if there's no side street

• Master Garden is surrounded by high hedges

• Inner Court is shaded by a fruit tree

   We did several things in SmartDwelling II to entice both the occupants and the neighbors outside. First, we designed the entire site as either outdoor rooms or passages… there's no standard lawn anywhere on the site (the lawn outside the fence is public property.)

   Each outdoor room and passage has distinct uses. The Inner Court just off the Keeping Room is the outdoor living room. The Master Garden is a small, very private outdoor room just off the master suite where the parents can have a bit of time to themselves.

SmartDwelling II Kitchen Garden

• fruit trees line left side of Kitchen garden

• Green Fence at rear has espaliered fruit above vining veggies

• raised beds in center radiate out from Tilapia Tank

   The Outer Court (just visible above at the left end of the garage) is completely paved for shooting hoops and other activities requiring a solid surface. The Kitchen Garden at the rear of the site can replace a substantial amount of grocery budget with home-grown nourishment, helping make the neighborhood a Nourishable Place.

   The edible landscape isn't confined to the Kitchen Garden, however. The Green Fence is similar in concept to the Green Wall in SmartDwelling I, and it runs all along the rear and right side of the lot has fruit trees espaliered on the top half and beans, peas, and other vegetables trained up below.

SmartDwelling II Wheat Lawn

   Edibles continue all around the house as well. The setbacks required by the city are narrow, and are often wasted because what can you do in a 5' strip of land except let the dogs run? Here, however, we use them as a linear orchard, with fruit trees all down the left side of the house. Oh, and that's the West side, so they also shade the house from the scorching Texas afternoon sun. The front yard is a bit of a flight of fancy. People rhapsodize about "amber waves of grain," so why not have a wheat lawn as shown here? If the residents would rather have vegetables, then we're beginning to learn how to grow them beautifully, so the neighbors won't mind.

SmartDwelling II Gift to the Street

   We're not just trying to entice the residents outdoors, but the neighbors as well. If every home on a block gave some sort of Gift to the Street, then the street becomes a place more people want to walk. Anything we can do to enhance a neighborhood's walkability builds its overall sustainability as well. In this case, the Gift to the Street is built into a fence recess at the front gate. It houses a bench on one side, for a place to rest, and potted flowers to the right, for a bit of visual delight.


Smaller & Smarter

SmartDwelling II garage & Green Shed

view of garage & Green Shed with roof removed shows how much

storage space can be recovered in stud walls

   SmartDwelling II is only 1,043 square feet, substantially smaller than the 1,400 square foot program. It houses three bedrooms and two baths within this envelope by doing a number of innovative things. Clothes are stored in armoires rather than closets, saving roughly 4" per wall. It doesn't sound like much, but it really adds up. We carved into interior walls throughout the house, using the wall cavities as storage instead of wasting them. We used a dining booth rather than a dining room, saving a lot of square footage by seating people in a cozier setting. Go to a restaurant anywhere, and you can see how decisively people choose booths over open tables when given the choice.


Other Frugal Things

SmartDwelling II corner view

   Building a smaller footprint starts many virtuous cycles. For example, smaller floor plans are much easier to cross-ventilate because they are small enough that you can give every room windows on at least two different walls, enhancing air flow. And light from two sides isn't just more beautiful, it helps to daylight the room so that you likely don't need to cut on the lights until evening. But we incorporated a number of other natural features as well:

SmartDwelling II Outer Court and garden

   The program required a front-facing garage, but we ignored this requirement for several reasons, chiefly because of the fact that buildings in temperate regions should be as long as possible East to West, reducing the length of the  Western wall and increasing the Southern wall, where it's easier to admit the low winter sun while shading out the high summer sun. But a front-facing garage would force the house to be long North-to-South, dramatically lengthening the Western wall to the Texas sun. Front-facing garages also reduce the walkability of the street for several reasons, including the fact that houses with garage doors as major street features are notoriously less lovable. Because this house sat on a corner lot, we entered the garage from the side street. And as noted in a caption above, if this design is used in the middle of the block, a driveway can run down the right side to the Outer Court, which then doubles as a motor court.

SmartDwelling II roof & vent hood

   The roofing is a major passive cooling device. Mill-finish 5V Crimp metal roofing was the predominant roofing material for many years in the South because it bounces roughly 90% of the sun's heat back up to the sky before it even gets into the building envelope. We've designed this vent hood similar to the Breeze Chimneys on SmartDwelling I: The fin turns the hood into the wind, so that the air flowing across it pulls warm air out of the house. It's sort of like a whole-house fan that doesn't need electricity.

   There's more, of course. I'll have to do another blog post showing the interior innovations that haven't been mentioned here… there's some really cool stuff. But what about the competition? We were right: SmartDwelling II never stood a chance. The prime sponsoring organization apparently took offense at the number of program requirements we ignored, but I'm still happy Wanda talked me into doing it, because more of us have to start calling out the Gizmo Green for what it really is: a strategy that cannot deliver real sustainability on its own.


   ~Steve Mouzon 


2011


Closets vs. Armoires

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Gunston Hall, one of America's first great homes


   Of all the elements in today's American homes, closets just might be considered the second-most essential, right behind the bathroom. How could we possibly live without closets? But if you'll look at plans of the greatest American homes ever built, you'll notice that most of the ones built before the 1920s had very few if any closets for clothes. How was that possible? Didn't they have more than a single change of clothes?

   Yes, they did, and it was actually quite easy. Rather than having fixed closets, they had a number of different pieces of furniture such as armoires, bureaus, chests-of-drawers, etc., for storing hanging clothing, folded clothing, etc. And when you look at those plans, you'll notice that the fact that they're not "gunked up" with closets all over the place allows the plans to be much cleaner, with better-proportioned rooms, doors, and windows.

   Clean plans, however, are just the beginning. Storing clothes in furniture rather than closets allows much more flexibility because it allows rooms to do the unthinkable: change from a bedroom to an office, dining room, den, study, library, and back again, just by moving furniture around.

   It also saves a lot of space. A stud wall with 5/8" sheetrock on either side is nearly 5" thick by the time you get it mudded and painted or finished with wallcovering. An armoire wall thickness is likely closer to 3/4". Reduce every closet wall by over 4" and you pick up some really usable space in a plan.

   You may also save money. We don't often consider the real cost of closets. By the time you frame the walls, sheetrock them, install the door frames, the doors, the hinges, the latches, the baseboard and possibly the crown mold on the outside of the closet, you've easily spent more than enough money to build a really nice armoire that can store just as much clothing as the closet. And if you've designed it well, the armoire is far more attractive than the closet.

   There's another benefit as well: Closet walls built to the ceiling make the bedroom smaller. But when you use armoires instead, they don't go all the way to the ceiling and as a result, the room looks bigger.

   With all these benefits, why would you not want to store your clothes this way? Like drywall-free walls, replacing closets with armoires is scary to most designers and builders because it isn't their normal way of doing things. Wanda and I designed Coastal Living's 2011 Idea House, and we designed all of the clothing storage in furniture pieces instead of closets. Just like the walls I blogged about earlier, the developer cautiously went along with the idea… until the drawings were done and the interior decorator got involved. Her influence was just enough to push the house back into using closets again. So remember that with any revolutionary idea, all of the experts (architects, designers, decorators, builders, developers, and real estate agents) will likely recommend against it because it's not what they're accustomed to. They're accustomed to doing ordinary things. But if you want an extraordinary home, make that very clear to them… if you prevail, they'll likely thank you for it once it's built.


survey services



Drywall-Free Walls

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Here's what drywall-free walls can look like. This example is from Eric Moser's Coastal Living Idea House in Habersham, South Carolina.


   Drywall is such a pervasive building material today that it's almost impossible to imagine building a house (or office) without it. It wasn't always that way. Drywall has only existed for just over a century, and didn't become the normal way of building interior walls until after WWII.

   Think about the "drywall" term for a minute. Ever think what it really means? Yeah, that's right - it works fairly well… so long as the wall is dry. But leave the window open while a summer shower blows in, or let the roof leak, and "dry-wall" turns into "wet-mush." One dousing of water, and it's a moldy, mildewy mess. You have to rip it all off, down to the studs, and rebuild the room. So the slogan should be "dry-wall or mush-wall"! And remember the Chinese Sheetrock Disaster recently… it doesn't necessarily even need to get wet to breed mold and mildew.

   Simply put, drywall can't endure imperfection. Not only does it fail when a bit of moisture causes it to breed disease-causing mold and mildew, but it's really fragile in other conditions as well. Have a couple teenage kids that like to horse around? Chances are, they'll probably smash a hole in the drywall before too long. Bump the vacuum against it a bit too hard? You'll knock its paper face off. Try hanging a picture and can't find the strength of a wood stud behind the powdery drywall? You just may make a real mess of things.

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Katrina Cottage VIII, which we designed, was built drywall-free

   There is a better way that doesn't cost so much more, and we've started to improve it for today's needs. Ever been to a little Atlantic beachfront cottage built before WWII? You might remember that the walls were sheathed in wood boards, and often left open on one side so you don't need wood on both sides of the wall. Really charming. And really useful as well. You can hang a picture, attach a peg, hang a cabinet or a shelf, and never have to worry about whether it's solidly attached. And you can actually build shelves within the wall as well, so that you're using ever cubic inch for storage instead of the hidden cavities of drywall-sheathed walls that breed mold and mildew when wet, and house roaches and mice.

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shelves inside fin wall transition smoothly

to kitchen shelves in Katrina Cottage VIII

   Some immediately protest "but what about the acoustical privacy?" What about it? Who is in the house with you? Your kids? Do you really not want to hear what your kids are doing? OK, maybe there are some times you don't… like when you're already in your bedroom for the night, but the need for acoustical privacy elsewhere in a house is dramatically overblown. If we're talking about a powder room just off the living room, then yes, you probably want to insulate those walls. But most other walls don't require insulation so much as we might think.

   I should note that we tried - and failed - to build drywall-free walls recently. Wanda and I designed the Coastal Living Idea House this year, and it was designed with many of the walls open. The developer was cautious about it because he had never built anything that way before, but he agreed to do it… all the way up to the point when the drawings were finished. But once the decorator (who had never done it before, either) got involved, her influence was just enough to tip the scales against it. So if you're planning on doing this, just be aware that the deck is stacked against you because everyone you work with will be in unfamiliar territory, and the unfamiliar makes people nervous. But the usefulness and charm you get in return for a few extra dollars is well worth it, and how can you put a dollar figure on a healthier house for your family?

2010


Why a Booth is Better

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booth-

   Booths are some of the most delightful and hardworking square footage you can design into a home. The New Urban Guild’s Project:SmartDwelling initiative, as you’ll recall, is all about building dramatically smaller and smarter. Nothing accomplishes this better than a booth. Here’s why:

   If you want to seat 6 people comfortably in a conventional dining room, you need about 180 square feet. If you want to accomplish the same task using a booth, you need about 36 square feet, or 1/5 as much area. Yet ask yourself this: when you go to a restaurant, which tables do you notice filling up quicker? The booths, of course! They’re cozy and personal, whereas a table in the middle of the room is... just a table in the middle of the room. Not so special. So a booth delivers what most people prefer, but in only 1/5 the space... what’s not to love about that?

   But there’s more. The booth pictured above is in the 2011 Coastal Living Idea House in East Beach Norfolkwhich Wanda and I are designing. The booth is at the heart of the house; the wall of glass to the left looks into the Great Room, the Kitchen is just above, and the windows just below the booth look out into the Hearth Garden (more on that in a later post.) As you can see, it’s an L-shaped booth, rather than the conventional booth with two benches facing each other. By itself, it can seat 4 people comfortably. Pull up chairs to the two open sides, and it can seat 8.

   It’s not just a dining booth, either, as you can see. It doubles as the kids’ homework station, where they can spread out and work in the evening, just across from the kitchen so they can get help from Mom (or whoever the cook is in the family.) It also makes a great home office workstation as well, where you can set up with your laptop and work in an airy, light-filled environment with a view to the garden. Just below those windows, in a band of trim just above the top of the booth’s back, is a row of several plugs to accommodate whatever you or your kids might need to charge as you work.

   And it doesn’t end there. SmartDwellings don’t waste space. There’s a little space in the seat back against the Great Room wall to the left, so we’ll carve into that for some narrow shelves. Below that, under the seat, there’s much more room, so we’ll slide some cool-looking wicker baskets under the seat from the Great Room side. We’ll also slide a long basket under the garden-side seat from the Garden Entry.

   Like it? Keep checking back... there’s lots more where this came from. 


   ~Steve Mouzon


Legacy Comments


richardjwh@gmail.com

Love it. Talk about making that space earn its keep...!

Tuesday, February 15, 2011 - 10:23 PM


Alternating Tread Stairs

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alternating-tread-stair

   OK, here’s what these blog posts are all about... Wanda and I are designing the 2011 Coastal Living Idea House. It’ll be located in East Beach Norfolk. I can’t scoop Coastal Living, of course... you’ll have to read the magazine to see the entire house for the first time, but I’ll cover many of the ideas here over the next few weeks as the house breaks ground and gets underway.

   One really cool thing about this Idea House is the fact that it’s shaping up to be the very first SmartDwelling to be built. Project:SmartDwelling is a New Urban Guild initiative to redesign the American home to be dramatically smaller and smarter. You can’t just shrink the house, of course, because nobody wants to see their life put in a vise. But we can’t keep doing what we’ve been doing, either, because McMansions are getting to look an awful lot like dinosaurs. What to do?

   The New Urban Guild believes that if houses get smarter as they get smaller, then people may do what they did with the Katrina Cottages we designed... they’ll say “I could live there... matter of fact, I’d rather live there!” So a house can be small, so long as it lives large. The goal of Project:SmartDwelling is to design houses so smart that they live as big as houses twice their size.

   The 2011 Coastal Living Idea House will paint this picture with great clarity. Until now, idea houses built by almost any organization have typically been behemoths, tipping the scales at 6,000 to 10,000 square feet. This one won’t even top 3,000 square feet, but it will house three generations of your family in very creative ways, plus your home office. There’s lots more to talk about over the next few weeks, but for now, let’s look at the “alternating tread stair,” or if you’d like a less technical name, the “Jefferson Stair.” That’s because Thomas Jefferson was always inventing new ways to travel from floor to floor without taking up so much space.

   The Jefferson Stair in the idea house leads to the attic, which could eventually be finished out for many uses. By alternating the treads, you get a full-depth tread for each foot, but you ascend twice as fast because each foot only needs to step forward 10” rather than the normal 20”. You don’t climb any higher with each step, so it’s arguably an easier climb. And unlike a stepladder, you can go down this one facing downward because each foot has a full step to step onto.

   Cool, huh? Stay tuned... there’s lots more to come.


   ~Steve Mouzon


Legacy Comments


Ennis

Wonderful idea!  Do you have the floor plan sketches for viewing yet?

Sunday, February 13, 2011 - 05:45 PM

bob

Be careful with these in terms of NFPA 101!

Thursday, June 2, 2011 - 02:12 PM


Conditioned Crawl Spaces

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crawl-space-diagram

   Here’s a great idea Eric Moser introduced me to. Crawl spaces are normally the dark underbellies of houses where the dirt floor is always damp if not downright standing in water in wet times of the year. Mold and mildew often abounds there, and if cancer-causing radon gas gets into your house, it usually gets there by coming through the crawl space.

   The crawl space is as cold as the outdoor air in winter, because you have to ventilate it in order to remove at least some of the moisture so that your floor joists don’t rot... and sometimes, they rot anyway. And so you have to insulate the floor system, almost always with fiberglass batts. Problem is, anytime a plumber or other service person is in your crawl space, it’s really easy to dislodge some of the fiberglass, giving that unconditioned air direct access to your floor.

   Plumbers aren’t the only creatures in your crawl space. Most crawl spaces are teeming with all sorts of vermin, from feral cats and squirrels (sometimes having a fight) to rats, bugs, and other creeping things. And all of those unwanted critters probably do more to dislodge your soggy floor insulation than the plumbers do.

   When Eric introduced me to the idea of a conditioned crawl space, it sounded at first like the latest way to spend more money, which is unusual, because Eric is normally so practical. But the more I listened, the better it sounded. Here’s what you do:

   A. Insulate the foundation walls with rigid closed-cell insulation, rather than insulating the floor system. Unless your house is on a steep slope, there’s probably a lot less surface area of walls to insulate than the area of the floor. So you may actually save money on the insulation.

   B. Skip the foundation vents; you won’t be needing them. Savings are minor here, but every dollar counts, right?

   C. Use a really good vapor barrier (at least 20 mils thick) and seal it tightly to the top of the foundation wall. Cover the rigid insulation on the foundation wall, and extend it all the way across the floor. Make sure all the joints are taped securely. You’ll need to insulate the band joist above the top of the foundation wall with rigid insulation, but don’t cover this with the vapor barrier, as the band joist needs to be inspected from time to time in order to satisfy termite inspectors or property inspectors if you’re selling the house.

   D. If you really want to do the best job, install a 2” thick “rat slab” over the vapor barrier on the floor of the crawl space. This slab doesn’t need to be troweled, nor does it even need to be particularly level... just make sure that it’s not thinner than 2” in spots.

   Building a crawl space this way has benefits beyond the elimination of mold, mildew, vermin, rot, and diseases for your family. Your plumber will thank you profusely whenever he has to service something in the crawl space, but it doesn’t stop there. You won’t have to worry about pipes freezing under the house anymore, because you’ll actually be piping a bit of conditioned air into the crawl space. It might be 10 degrees cooler than your living room, but it’ll be much warmer than the winter air outside. This also means that ductwork running through the crawl space isn’t subjected to summer heat or freezing temperatures in winter, so your equipment will be more efficient. You can also put your airhandling unit in the crawl space, where it can be serviced in a clean and dry environment. Like the attic units I blogged about earlier, this can save a couple thousand dollars or more in finished space, because you won’t be needing that HVAC closet next to the great room anymore.

   Bottom line: you’ll likely spend a bit more money upfront on a conditioned crawl space. Estimates run as low as $1,500 if you do all the work yourself (without the rat slab) up to several thousand if a contractor does everything for you. But you’ll clearly save that money back before long on service and operation costs alone, and that doesn’t even begin to count the health benefits. What’s your family’s health worth?


   ~Steve Mouzon


Legacy Comments


Jay Wilson

Only way we will construct one these days. We just do not have any maintenance or long term health issues & it does increase Energy efficiency. The other thing we do as standard practice is line all footer trenches with 6 mil vapor barrier, which eliminates any wick effect of the concrete and extends useful life dramatically because water can't get to the re-bar and rust it.

Monday, November 29, 2010 - 08:19 PM


Giovanni

Steve,

We've been doing this in our project of Warwick Grove for several years now.  Being in New York State we needed to get a variance to exclude foundation vents and had to install rigid insulation that met the fire exposure requirements.  Our mechanical systems are installed in the crawl space and we also supply "conditioned" air into that space.  The results have been considerable savings in energy costs.

Wednesday, December 1, 2010 - 09:52 AM


Insulated Attics

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   Insulated attics are emerging as an excellent new way of building a better home. Insulated attics possible because of the development of spray foam insulation, which allows insulation to be installed between the rafters and not fall out. Fiberglass, which is only friction-fit, would fall out almost immediately and therefore has to be installed on top of the ceiling, which holds it in place... so long as nobody ever goes into the attic and disturbs any of it.

   You might say “Wait, but now you have more insulation, because you’re having to run up the slope and back down again, and you’re conditioning more space (the attic); doesn’t that cost more to operate?” The answers are “Yes,” and “No.” Here’s why:

   A. It’s definitely true that you’re using more insulation because there are more square feet on the roof than there are on the ceiling, because the roof is on a slope.

   B. You would think you’re spending more on utilities because that extra area of insulation on the slope will lose more heat, right? That would be true if everything else were equal, but it’s not. Spray foam seals tight around framing, pipes, wires, or whatever else is in the way. Fiberglass is notorious for leaving gaps and holes everywhere. So the performance of the spray foam is better than the fiberglass, meaning that you’re spending less. And that’s only the beginning.

   C. Ever been in an attic on a sunny summer day? The heat is stifling. Matter of fact, it’s a huge heat trap. Attics can easily heat up to 140 degrees or higher; in hotter parts of the country, they sometimes reach 180 degrees. So that less efficient fiberglass insulation has a much taller order to fill: insulating against the 140 degrees or higher in the attic, rather than the 80 to 90 degrees outdoors. Because spray foam only has to insulate against the outside air temperature, an insulated attic might only be 10 or 15 degrees warmer than the inside air, and somewhat cooler than the outside air... a far cry from the 70+ degrees of difference between inside air and attic air in a heat-trapping uninsulated attic.

   D. Uninsulated attics are ventilated, but only just enough to supposedly allow moisture to escape. But that ventilation is problematic... you’ll never convince me that rain doesn’t blow in the vents during a bad storm. Spray foam, meanwhile, doesn’t require the attic to be ventilated because it installs tight to the roof deck, leaving no air space for condensation on the unconditioned side of the insulation. Eliminating attic ventilation doesn’t just keep out a blowing rain. It also lets you avoid those unsightly ridge vents that crush so easily every time someone is on the roof for maintenance.

   E. There are other benefits as well: Horizontal-flow heating and cooling units in the attic save a lot of money, because at $200 per square foot (a common price in many places) a closet in your floor plan for the air conditioner can easily cost $2,000 or more. Putting the unit in the attic lets you actually use those square feet for living rather than equipment. But units in the attic are problematic if the attic is 140 degrees or more through the summer. How insane is it to try to make cool air in the hottest part of the house? Try putting your icemaker up there and see if it makes any ice. But if it’s an insulated attic, then the problem is solved, and you save money from now on with equipment that runs more efficiently.

   F. Here’s another one: Water pipes run through an uninsulated attic must be heavily insulated, and still run the risk of freezing in winter if any of the insulation is improperly installed or damaged accidentally by humans or other creatures. Anyone who has had frozen pipes knows the repair costs only begin with the plumber.

   G. Finally, there’s some really cool stuff that becomes possible on your top floor that’s impossible with an uninsulated attic. I’ll blog about it later; it’s worthy of several blog posts, actually. These are ideas that I’ve been developing for several years. Recently, I’ve discovered that some of my colleagues have independently been developing these ideas as well. One of the leaders is New Urban Guild architect Eric Moser. Eric has promised to start blogging on these developments shortly; I’ll link to his posts when he does, so you get his perspective as well.


   Stay tuned!


   ~Steve Mouzon


Legacy Comments


Carl Seville

Steve - Excellent points about insulated roof lines vs. ceilings.  I have been a strong proponent of spray foam rooflines for many years, but as I continue to learn about sustainable building, I find that my opinion has evolved.  Spray foam is a petroleum product and does contain many toxic chemicals that can do harm to installers and occupants.  Fiberglass, mineral wool, and cellulose, while none are perfect provide alternatives to consider, although none provide the air sealing of foam.  As to conditioning the attic, this makes sense, particularly if there is HVAC equipment there, but that in itself can be considered a design flaw.  If you don't put stuff in the attic that needs to be heated and cooled, then you don't need to condition it.  I recently saw the results of a study showing that the interior space below a well insulated and air sealed ceiling did not suffer measurable temperature changes from unconditioned attics.  This does require, however, that the ceiling be perfectly sealed and insulated and avoid recessed lights and other penetrations.  Most applications of ceiling insulation are very poorly installed, if they were done properly, they would perform much more closely to spray foam, but they would probably cost much more.  Basically, there is no single answer to the question of where to insulate the top of a house.  It depends on the design, budget, mechanical design, and other factors.  To me, the great thing about construction is that it's complicated.   I get bored with simple solutions.

Monday, November 29, 2010 - 04:50 PM


Allison A. Bailes III, PhD

Like Carl, I'm also a big advocate for insulated rooflines. I built a house with one and have been involved in many home performance jobs where we sprayed foam on the roofline, too. 

In addition to spray foam, though, it's possible to insulate a roofline other ways. The house I built had structural insulated panels as the roof, which, in addition to the air sealing benefits, also reduced the amount of thermal bridging because the 2x8 splines holding the panels together were every 4' apart instead of every 16" or 24". SIPs also save a step because the framing and insulation happen at the same time. You can use fiberglass or cellulose as well, but you have to have a rigid sheathing below, as you do in vaulted ceilings.

Regarding the temperatures, they're not quite as high or as low as you said, though. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) found that ventilated attic temperatures get up to around 130 degrees F, not 140 or higher. There's also significant stratification, so the temperature near the top of the ceiling insulation will be even lower.

Also, the temperature that the foam sees will be higher than the outdoor air temperature. Without insulation, the bottom side of a roof deck can get up above 150 degrees because of heat conducting down from the shingles. That's the temperature that the foam will see.

Here's a related article I wrote about shingle temperatures based on a study from FSEC called "Literature Review of the Impact and Need for Attic Ventilation in Florida Homes."

http://bit.ly/bZKBo0

Monday, November 29, 2010 - 09:34 PM


Michael Anschel

Steve,
I'm inclined to agree with my curmudgeonly brother from another mother on this one. Unvented attic assemblies have been around for some time and I am generally a fan. I've installed more than a few, even my own home, ignoring state codes to do so. However, sealing and insulating across the lid allows for greater R-value at significantly reduced cost and less volume to condition. (Recessed lights in insulated ceiling should be illegal, and sure as heck won't make it into one of our projects.)

Where unvented attic assemblies really shine are in vaulted, scissors truss, ceilings and existing 1 1/2 story homes. That upper half story is a nightmare waiting to happen with current code requirements for insulating. They are the perfect candidates for spray foam insulation to seal the many penetrations, get around that birds mouth, seal up that shiplap subfloor, and get decent insulation levels on the sloped ceiling and tiny section of collar tied ceiling.

Petroleum is a resource. Using it for insulation and air sealing doesn't bug me, but using it in the right location at the right time rather as a catch all is important. Blown place fiberglass is less toxic, less damaging to the environment, and achieves air sealing at levels similar to foams. Permeability is another story, but I've already chewed up enough space here. Nice post.

Monday, November 29, 2010 - 09:34 PM



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